In the United States, gender stereotypes are an issue that has been explored and studied in various capacities. These studies focus on how men and women are commonly perceived in society and how these expectations can shape behavior. Three such studies include research by Cliantha L. Hill (2010), Janet S. Hyde (2005) and the American Psychological Association (2016).
Cliantha L. Hill’s 2010 study entitled “The Impact of Gender Stereotypes on Self-Perceptions: A Meta-Analysis” found that there were gender differences in self-perception of competence, which is defined as an individual’s evaluation of their abilities based on comparison to others (Hill, 2010). The study surveyed over 350 published articles from 1950 to 2008 focusing on gender role stereotypes across a range of topics including academic ability, physical appearance, social skills and leadership capabilities (Hill, 2010). They found that men consistently rated themselves higher than women for all categories; however, this varied depending upon the culture or context being studied (Hill, 2010). This suggests that although there is a general expectation for males to rate themselves higher than females due to traditional gender roles within US culture; this does not always hold true when accounting for other factors such as cultural influence or educational background.
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