Identify and describe 2-3 changes or characteristics in physical, cognitive, socioemotional, and moral development.

Physical Development
Physical development is defined as the changes that occur in a person’s body over their lifetime. These changes can vary from age range to age range, and include physical abilities such as walking, running, or climbing. For example, infants (birth-1 years old) begin to build gross motor skills (e.g., rolling over and crawling), while preteens (10-12 years old) may become taller and more aware of physical activities such as sports and exercise (Curtin & Galambos, 2018). An appropriate toy/activity for this age range would be something that encourages exploration like an activity gym or ball pit. These toys promote sensory play which help develop gross motor skills in young children by providing them with opportunities to explore their environment safely (Edenbaum & Golombok, 2017).

Cognitive Development
Cognitive development is defined as the process of gaining knowledge about one’s self and the world around them. The development of cognitive skills has been found to be particularly important during early childhood when a child begins to learn language and other necessary life skills. During middle childhood (6-11 years old), cognitive abilities continue to develop further through the mastering of academic subjects such as math or reading; while during adolescence (12-18 year olds) they will focus on more abstract thinking tasks such as ethical reasoning or problem solving strategies(Garbarino et al.,2015). One appropriate toy/activity for this age range would be puzzles since they encourage problem solving by helping children think logically about how pieces fit together. Puzzles also give kids an opportunity to practice their fine motor coordination – another important skill for cognitive growth – which means it aids both their physical and mental developments at once (Friedman et al.,2016).

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Identify and describe 2-3 changes or characteristics in physical, cognitive, socioemotional, and moral development.

Socioemotional Development
Socioemotional development is defined as the emotional connections between people; it involves the ability to recognize facial expressions, feelings, and social cues. During early childhood these social skills are learned through interactions with parents or caregivers(Sylwester et al.,2018); whereas during adolescence these relationships become increasingly complex due largely in part because teens must prepare themselves for adulthood responsibilities outside home life(Hare et al.,2017). An appropriate toy/activity for this age group would be board games since they help teach cooperative behavior among peers while also encouraging communication within groups – two key components of socioemotional development (Colasanti & Broussard,.2020). Board games typically involve taking turns at different tasks which helps foster empathy towards others in addition making decisions collaboratively rather than unilaterally– all essential tools needed when engaging with others emotionally later on in life.

Moral Development
Moral development refers to “the emergence of moral thought processes related to understanding right versus wrong”.(Khattab & Orense 2020 p 903) Toddlers demonstrate moral competence by recognizing what behaviors lead toward praise from adults; whereas adolescents will display values associated with those same adults like respectfulness towards authority figures.(Lapsley& Narvaez 2020 ).An appropriate toy/activity for this group would be role playing toys like dolls where kids can act out various scenarios demonstrating empathy towards others before actually confronting similar issues in real life . Role playing allows adolescents understand other perspectives better thus building up healthy interpersonal relationships based on mutual understanding instead of adversarial ones.(Vasta 2020 )

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