Explain the differences between the types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. 

Diabetes is a disease that results from the body’s inability to either produce or properly use insulin. Insulin is a hormone created in the pancreas which helps cells throughout the body absorb glucose, the primary source of energy for our bodies. When this process is impaired, it causes an increase in blood sugar levels and ultimately diabetes (Nestle Health Science, 2018). Diabetes can be divided into four main categories: Type 1, Type 2, Gestational and Juvenile diabetes.

Type 1 Diabetes is an autoimmune disorder that attacks and destroys beta cells in the pancreas which are responsible for producing insulin. Due to this destruction there is no production of insulin and therefore Type 1 diabetics must rely on daily injections to regulate their glucose level (Hassan et al., 2017). This type of diabetes tends to appear during childhood or adolescence although it can occur at any age. It accounts for only 5-10% of all cases of diabetes with males being twice as likely than females to develop it (Novo Nordisk Australia Pty Ltd., 2019). The cause remains unknown however genetics may play a role as well as environmental factors such as viral infections or toxins (US Department of Health & Human Services – National Institutes of Health, n.d.).

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