Acute and chronic pain are two distinct yet overlapping forms of pain that affect pediatric patients. Acute pain typically arises from a specific injury or illness and is usually localized, lasting for only a short duration of time. Examples include toothache, labor contractions, post-surgical incisional pain and trauma related injuries such as burns or broken bones. In contrast to acute pain, chronic pain is long-lasting and can be either localized or widespread in nature; it’s often associated with diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis & fibromyalgia but may also arise due psychological issues (e.g., depression).
The pathophysiology underlying the two types of pain is similar yet distinct. When exposed an acute painful stimulus, nociceptors within body send signals along nerve pathways towards brain release substances like endorphins which act to reduce sensation whilst other hormones prepare person for potential fight-or-flight response. Chronic on other hand occurs when these pathways become overly active result ongoing exposure noxious stimuli leading neuroplasticity changes occur systemic inflammation.
Compare and contrast acute pain and chronic pain in the pediatric patient
In terms treatment strategies each type suffering requires slightly different approach too – with acute focus being placed upon providing adequate relief via medications such NSAIDS (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) whereas chronic requiring multimodal approach involving both pharmacological methods coupled physical therapy/psychotherapy etcetera. Both however require careful monitoring ensure correct dosage taken prevent development any adverse reactions!
, , , , : Bredlau AL et al., Pediatrics 2014